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Конкурси для молодих науковців

Державний фонд фундаментальних досліджень


         Конкурс на здобуття грантів Президента України для підтримки наукових досліджень молодих учених


         Державне агентство з питань науки, інновацій та інформатизації України


         Двобічні проекти з країнами ЄС 


        Національна академія наук України


        Конкурс на здобуття премій для молодих учених і студентів вищих навчальних закладів за кращі наукові роботи


        Комітет з Державних премій України в галузі науки і техніки 


        Конкурс на здобуття щорічної Премії Президента України для молодих вчених

        Конкурс на здобуття стипендій Кабінету Міністрів України для молодих вчених


       Компанія ОПТЕК 


       Конкурс на здобуття гранту для молодих науковців провідних вищих навчальних закладів та науково-дослідних установ на 2013-2014 рр.


       Міжурядова рамкова програма Європейської взаэмодії науки та технологій 

       COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) 



UV4Growth– мережа, що об’єднує понад 180 дослідників з 25 країн Європи та світу, в тому числі, з України. Фінансування її здійснює COST, міжурядова рамкова програма Європейської взаэмодії науки та технологій (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), яка підтримує вчених з університетів, науково-дослідних установ та промисловості. Одним із завдань мережі UV4Growth є поширення наукової інформації у широких колах про останні відкриття, присвячені змінам морфології та метаболізму рослин, а також посиленню їх стійкості до патогенів під впливом ультрафіолетового випромінювання (УФ). Голова UV4Growth доктор Марсель Янсен (Університет Корку, Ірландія) вважає, що відсутність взаємодії між дослідниками та приватними підприємцями з аграрного сектору з метою покращення якості продукції на основі рослинної сировини була вже частково подолана завдяки активності учасників цієї мережі за три роки її функціонування. Якщо Ви зацікавлені у подальшій співпраці, звертайтеся за адресою uvforgrowth@gmail.com

Повну інформацію Ви можете знайти на сайті проекту UV4Growth або отримати у головного координатора програми Dr. Marcel AK Jansen, University College Cork (m.jansen@ucc.ie)


Матеріали за темою: УФ-В як біотехнологічний інструмент 



Ultraviolet-light as a novel tool for the horticultural industry


Modern horticultural production systems are built on the application of numerous scientific advances from across crop and soil biology. The development of modern substrates and fertilizers is dependent on understanding of the physical and chemical properties of substrate materials and the way plants access and use nutrients. Irrigation increasingly makes use of the latest understanding of how plants regulate their own water balance.  That leaves light as the one key resource, necessary for plant growth, where production systems lag behind advances in the underpinning science. In field crops it is rarely possible to “manage light” but in protected cropping the properties of cladding materials allow light management as, of course, may artificial lighting. Supplementary lighting regimes can in part be informed by the light requirement of photosynthesis, but in practice are more often determined by the energy costs and other aspects of economics. Plants use light for more than just photosynthesis, it is often a vital signal in controlling growth and development, and this is exploited commercially through long-established techniques like night-break lighting.

A relatively new discovery is that plants can detect and respond to ultraviolet, or UV-light (see figure 1).  Even a decade ago, UV was barely on the radar as a potential tool in protected crop production, if anything UV was seen as a potential source of damage. However, the last few years has seen a transformation of the basic understanding of plant responses to UV. This understanding, combined with advances in the technologies to manipulate UV, is creating new opportunities for protected crop production. This is an area where Europe leads the world in integrating basic research and its applications. As well as a range of national projects, the EU funded UV4growth action is forging new links across countries and between researchers and end-users (see UV4growth box). This article summarises recent progress and future prospects, drawing on the UV4growth network and both academic research and the experience of growers around Europe who are already using UV-based approaches.


The emerging story of UV-B


UV-B research was stimulated by concerns about stratospheric ozone depletion, which increases the amount of solar UV-B reaching the Earth’s surface. It is now clear that the UV-B present in sunlight does not normally damage plants, but rather acts as an important regulator of plant growth. It is this regulatory effect of UV-B that can have a wide range of useful effects in horticulture. Applied studies have highlighted the potential benefits of using UV-transparent films and/or supplemental UV-B in protected cropping, which include growth regulation, improved seedling quality in propagation crops, improved colour and pigment content, changes in plant chemistry determining taste and odour, improved oil content in herbs, and contributions to pest and disease control. For example, Mr. Bean (Crystal Heart Salad Company, UK) reported that lettuce seedlings propagated under UV-transmitting films are more compact and have a deeper colour. Mr. Bilgehan (Fethiye Fide, Turkey) reported that UV transparent film improved the quality of tomato seedlings considerably, in comparison with standard film. Seedlings are more compact with high roots density and thicker leaves. Moreover, Mr. Öztürk (Imoz Tarim, Turkey) remarked that use of UV transparent films increased the number of marketable fruit numbers, with both earlier coloration and increased firmness. Such effects are not limited to sunny Mediterranean environments, observational work conducted by Mr. Gaffney at the Teagasc Research Centre in Kinsealy (Ireland) also highlighted the significant effects that UV transparent plastic film can have on shape, size and aesthetics of an ornamental plant. The UV transparent film resulted in more compact, smaller plants across a range of species, including Hebe, Cotinus, Prunus and Escallonia. The colour intensity of both Cotinus leaf and Lavender flower were also increased when compared to UV blocking films. Furthermore, Dr. Gaffney reported interesting effects on pest behaviour. It is conceivable that UV-cladding films can be selected and used to help reduce the severity of pest and disease outbreaks in polytunnels.


Potent UV-C radiation


Since UV-C is not present in sunlight, it can only be provided using lamps. UV-C is extremely potent and even low intensities can damage microbes, plants and humans. There are commercial systems based on UV-C lamps that successfully exploit the potency of UV-C light, for example to control powdery mildew on glasshouse crops. However, the risk of damage to the crop and to operators means that the use of UV-C in commercial production needs to be very carefully calibrated.


Blacklights and UV-A


Unlike humans, many animals can see UV-A. This includes many insects, a fact that is underpins the use of UV in pest control. Without adequate UV-A insects such as thrips and whiteflies cannot disperse as usual. Moreover, many of the fungi that cause major crop diseases, Botrytis cinerea for example, also detect UV-A and use it to regulate spore production, so that spore production is inhibited when UV-A is not present. These biological responses to UV-A have led to the development of UV-blocking films designed to contribute to pest and disease control. These films have been used quite widely in Turkey and Egypt. To date there appears to be little commercial uptake of UV-blocking films in Western or Northern Europe, and while research suggests that UV-blocking films might be useful  to control grey mould and downy mildew in some seasons, in practice their effects appear to be rather inconsistent. 


Looking ahead


Many researchers involved in UV research, like those in the EU-funded UV4growth COST network (see box), are looking to apply their work to crop production systems. In the UK, the Horticultural Development Company (HDC) funded a major programme of research in to plastic claddings with different UV transmissions between 1991 and 1994. The results of the HDC research confirmed that UV transparent films can be valuable in a wide range of crops, including for growth regulation and to improve seedling quality. The HDC projects and other research also suggested that UV-transparent films can be useful in pest control. As well as new developments in plastics, use of UV-reflecting mulches and advances in lighting technology, especially LEDs, facilitate manipulation of UV-levels. At present, UV-LEDs remain too expensive for use in commercial horticultural lighting but much of the basic research in to UV-B is based on using fluorescent UV-tubes.

In summary, researchers have generated good fundamental understanding of plant UV-responses, while technologies to deliver precisely defined UV treatments are available. Thus, it is now possible to incorporate the whole UV spectrum in to lighting systems for a range of crops grown under glass or in growing rooms,  generating a tool to manipulate plant shape, seedling quality, colour and to contribute to pest and disease control.



Outline text by Prof Nigel Paul, Lancaster University, UK.